I went to the experts for this one, because all I could tell you is that alcohol gets up stains and residues, but it’s really drying; and vinegar is acidic, so it dissolves stuff.
Fortunately, my friend @themoderatelyambitiousscientist is smarter than I am, and offers this explanation:
Basically, rubbing alcohol is good at dissolving non-polar compounds, like oils. Acetic acid [vinegar] is good at dissolving both non-polar compounds and polar compounds (salts and sugars). So acetic acid is better both because it doesn’t evaporate as fast and also because it can dissolve more stains. But some cleaners use both together.